The ZikaPLAN consortium unites many of the world’s leading scientists in the field of Zika research. A selection of their publications follows.

  1. Neurological Implications of Zika Virus Infection in Adults
    By Laura S Muñoz, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo - The Journal of Infectious Diseases, December 16, 2017
    Clinically, Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) predominated among regions affected by the ZIKV epidemic, but the spectrum of neurological disease in the adults appears broader as cases of encephalopathy, encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis, and seizures have also been reported. This review summarizes the current evidence on ZIKV-associated neurological complications in the adults.
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  2. Global Assessment of Dengue Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses in Dengue-Endemic Areas
    By Grifoni A et al. – Frontiers in Immunology, October 13, 2017
    Assessment of adaptive immunity is important to understanding immunopathology and to define correlates of protection against dengue virus (DENV). The authors found that the DENV CD4 MP180 can be utilized to measure ex vivo responses to DENV irrespective of geographical location.
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  3. Care beyond the hospital ward: understanding the socio-medical trajectory of herpes simplex virus encephalitis
    By Jessie Cooper, Ciara Kierans, Sylviane Defres, Ava Easton, Rachel Kneen, Tom Solomon and on behalf of ENCEPH-UK study group - BMC Health Services Research, September 2017
    The paper reports on data from 30 narrative interviews with 45 people affected by HSV encephalitis and their significant others. The findings show the diverse challenges which are experienced by people after treatment for HSV encephalitis, the social consequences which result from its longer-term effects, and the lack of support systems for the post-acute effects of the disease.
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  4. Zika virus pathogenesis in rhesus macaques is unaffected by pre-existing immunity to dengue virus
    By Petraleigh Pantoja, Erick X. Pérez-Guzma, Idia V. Rodrìguez, Laura J. White, Olga Gonza ́lez, Crisanta Serrano, Luis Giavedoni, Vida Hodara, Lorna Cruz, Teresa Arana, Melween I. Mart ́ınez, Mariah A. Hassert, James D. Brien, Amelia K. Pinto, Aravinda de Silva & Carlos A. Sariol
    In this groundbreaking study, the effects of pre-existing DENV immunity on ZIKV infection in vivo are examined. The results, while confirming ADE in vitro, suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity does not result in more severe ZIKV disease.
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  5. Zika Virus Replicons for Drug Discovery
    By Xie X, Zou J, Shan C, Yang Y, Kum DB, Dallmeier K, Neyts J,Shi PY.
    Two ZIKV replicon systems were developed, a luciferase replicon that can differentiate between viral translation and RNA synthesis and a stable luciferase replicon carrying cell line that can be used to screen and characterize inhibitors of viral replication.
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  6. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2'-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model
    By Zmurko J, Marques RE, Schols D, Verbeken E, Kaptein SJ, Neyts J
    We were among the first teams to report on a relevant Zika mouse model.  Infected animals develop brain involvement and males have high titers of virus in their testicles. Treatment with a viral polymerase inhibitors delays virus induced disease.
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  7. Zika and Other Emerging Viruses: Aiming at the Right Target
    By Dallmeier K, Neyts J.
    Off-label use of drugs that may protect against Zika virus-induced brain damage has to be balanced with their risk during pregnancy.
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  8. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe: population based study
    By Morris JK, Rankin J, Garne E, Loane M, Greenlees R, Addor MC, Arriola L, Barisic I, Bergman JE, Csaky-Szunyogh M, Dias C, Draper ES, Gatt M, Khoshnood B, Klungsoyr K, Kurinczuk JJ, Lynch C, McDonnell R, Nelen V, Neville AJ, O'Mahony MT, Pierini A, Randrianaivo H, Rissmann A, Tucker D, Verellen-Dumoulin C, de Walle HE, Wellesley D, Wiesel A, Dolk H.
    The article concluded that EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. But, because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, the smaller increases expected in Europe would not be detected.
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  9. Rapid Molecular Detection of Zika Virus in Acute-Phase urine samples using the recombinase polymerase amplification assay
    By Abd El Wahed A, Sanabani SS, Faye O, Pessôa R, Patriota JV, Giorgi RR, Patel P, Böhlken-Fascher S, Landt O, Niedrig M, Zanotto PM, Czerny CP, Sall AA, Weidmann M.
    The developed RT-RPA assay in this article is the first sensitive rapid molecular assay applied on samples for the detection of ZIKA in 15 minutes, which could be implemented at the point of need in a mobile suitcase laboratory to make testing of pregnant women available directly in rural settings.
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  10. African and Asian Zika virus strains differentially induce early antiviral responses in primary human astrocytes
    By Hamel R, Ferraris P, Wichit S, Diop F, Talignani L, Pompon J, Garcia D, Liégeois F, Sall AA, Yssel H, Missé D.
    The article reports the permissiveness of primary human astrocytes for two clinically relevant, Asian and African ZIKV strains and although they show markedly different kinetics, but they strongly induce antiviral immune responses in these cells. It also describes the specific antiviral gene expression in infected primary human astrocytes for the first time.
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  11. Potential for Zika virus to establish a sylvatic transmission cycle in the Americas
    By Althouse BM, Vasilakis N, Sall AA, Diallo M, Weaver SC, Hanley KA.
    Sylvatic Zika virus has exhibited periodic amplifications in Senegal for the past 50 years. Mathematical modelling of Zika virus transmission suggest a high likelihood of establishment of a sylvatic Zika cycle in the forests of South America.
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  12. Full genome sequence and sfRNA interferon antagonist activity of Zika virus from Recife, Brazil
    By Donald CL, Brennan B, Cumberworth SL, Rezelj VV, Clark JJ, Cordeiro MT, Freitas de Oliveira França R, Pena LJ, Wilkie GS, Da Silva Filipe A, Davis C, Hughes J, Varjak M, Selinger M, Zuvanov L, Owsianka AM, Patel AH, McLauchlan J, Lindenbach BD, Fall G, Sall AA, Biek R, Rehwinkel J, Schnettler E, Kohl A.
    Full-length sequence of a ZIKV isolate is described in this article. The production of an RNA molecule derived from the 3’ untranslated region that counteracts interferon responses was demonstrated in the article and this could be important for understanding the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection.
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  13. The Brazilian Zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models
    By Cugola FR, Fernandes IR, Russo FB, Freitas BC, Dias JL, Guimarães KP, Benazzato C, Almeida N, Pignatari GC, Romero S, Polonio CM, Cunha I, Freitas CL, Brandão WN, Rossato C, Andrade DG, Faria Dde P, Garcez AT, Buchpigel CA, Braconi CT, Mendes
    This is the first report showing a gene expression profile that correlates to cell death in the brains of microcephalic newborn ZIKVBR-infected mice.
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  14. Zika virus and microcephaly: why is this situation a PHEIC?
    By Heymann DL, Hodgson A, Sall AA, Freedman DO, Staples JE, Althabe F, Baruah K, Mahmud G, Kandun N, Vasconcelos PF, Bino S, Menon KU.
    This article commented on the reasons Zika virus and microcephaly was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).
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  15. Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
    By Diagne CT, Diallo D, Faye O, Ba Y, Faye O, Gaye A, Dia I, Faye O, Weaver SC, Sall AA, Diallo M.
    The article concluded that all the different populations tested in this article were susceptible to oral infection, except for a low proportion of Ae. Vittatus and Ae. Luteocephalus that has the viral genome in their saliva and thus has the potential to transmit the virus.
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  16. Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern Senegal, 2011
    By Diallo D, Sall AA, Diagne CT, Faye O, Faye O, Ba Y, Hanley KA, Buenemann M, Weaver SC, Diallo M.
    The 2011 ZIKV amplification was widespread in Southeastern Senegal, which involves several mosquito species as probable vectors and is collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages.
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  17. Zika virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013
    By Cao-Lormeau VM, Roche C, Teissier A, Robin E, Berry AL, Mallet HP, Sall AA, Musso D.
    The article reports on the early investigations that led to identification of ZIKV as the causative agent of an outbreak that started in October 2013 in French Polynesia.
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  18. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th) century
    By Faye O, Freire CC, Iamarino A, Faye O, de Oliveira JV, Diallo M, Zanotto PM, Sall AA.
    This article shows that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.
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  19. Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Zika virus and evaluation with field-caught mosquitoes
    By Faye O, Faye O, Diallo D, Diallo M, Weidmann M, Sall AA.
    A rapid, sensitive and specific rRT-PCR for detection of ZIKV is reported to have been developed in this paper. It is useful for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate.
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  20. Estimate of the reproduction number of the 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia, and estimation of the relative role of sexual transmission
    By Towers S, Brauer F, Castillo-Chavez C, Falconar AK, Mubayi A, Romero-Vivas CM.
    This article is among the first to estimate the reproduction number (R0) for a ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. The article’s modelling analysis estimates that up to 47% of ZIKV cases in Barranquilla, with 95% confidence, may have been due to sexual contact alone.
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  21. Estimated Zika virus importations to Europe by travellers from Brazil
    By Massad E, Tan SH, Khan K, Wilder-Smith A.
    Mathematical Modelling of Zika virus importations in high-risk countries in Europe and such data can help in estimating the extent of importations in order to prepare for the scale up preparatory measures for ZIKV transmission in Europe.
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  22. Epidemic arboviral diseases: priorities for research and public health
    By Wilder-Smith A, Gubler DJ, Weaver SC, Monath TP, Heymann DL, Scott TW.
    In the past five decades, there is an unprecedented emergence of epidemic arboviral diseases resulting from urbanisation, globalisation and international mobility. With the resurgence of dengue and chikungunya, this constitute a wake-up call for different authorities to strengthen programmes and enhance research in aedes-transmitted diseases.
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  23. Travel-associated Zika virus disease acquired in the Americas through February 2016: A GeoSentinel Analysis
    By Hamer DH, Barbre KA, Chen LH, Grobusch MP, Schlagenhauf P, Goorhuis A, van Genderen PJ, Molina I, Asgeirsson H, Kozarsky PE, Caumes E, Hagmann SH, Mockenhaupt FP, Eperon G, Barnett ED, Bottieau E, Boggild AK, Gautret P, Hynes NA, Kuhn S, Lash RR, Leder K, Libman M, Malvy DJ, Perret C, Rothe C, Schwartz E, Wilder-Smith A, Cetron MS, Esposito DH; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network.
    Besides providing in surveillance data, serious fetal complications were observed and thus highlighting the importance of travel advirosires and prevention measures for pregnant women and their partners.
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  24. Estimated global exportations of Zika virus infections via travellers from Brazil from 2014 to 2015
    By Quam MB, Wilder-Smith A.
    Ongoing Zika pandemic in Latin America illustrates a potential source for further globalized spread. The article estimated of 584-1786 exported Zika cases from Brazil occurred September 2014-August 2015.
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  25. The olympically mismeasured risk of Zika virus in Rio de Janerio – Authors’ reply
    By Massad E, Coutinho FA, Wilder-Smith A.
    Authors’ reply on estimates on the risk of Zika virus infection to foreign visitors to Rio de Janeiro during the Summer Olympic Games
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  26. Early detection of Zika virus infection among travellers from areas of ongoing transmission in China
    By Zhang J, Jin X, Zhu Z, Huang L, Liang S, Xu Y, Liao R, Zhou L, Zhang Y, Wilder-Smith A.
    9 imported Zika virus infections were detected in mainland China from February 1 to 29, 2016. Diagnosis relied on positive real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV RNA.
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  27. Assessing seasonal risks for the introduction and mosquito-borne spread of Zika virus in Europe
    By Rocklöv J, Quam MB, Sudre B, German M, Kraemer MU, Brady O, Bogoch II, Liu-Helmersson J, Wilder-Smith A, Semenza JC, Ong M, Aaslav KK, Khan K.
    Validated climate model suggests mosquito-borne Zika transmission risk peaks in July and August in parts of Southern Europe. Also, air travel peak from regions of the Americas align with peak predicted capacity of European Aedes vectors to transmit.
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  28. Is Zika a substantial risk for visitors to the Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games?
    By Massad E, Coutinho FA, Wilder-Smith A.
    Risk estimation for tourists and athletes visiting Rio de Janerio for Olympic Games is provided and it is calculated that it is more than 15 times less than that for dengue.
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  29. Personal protection of permethrin-treated clothing against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and zika virus, in the laboratory
    By Orsborne J, DeRaedt Banks S, Hendy A, Gezan SA, Kaur H, Wilder-Smith A, Lindsay SW, Logan JG.
    An assessment of the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory.
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  30. Potential exposure to Zika virus for foreign tourists during the 2016 Carnival and Olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    By Burattini MN, Coutinho FA, Lopez LF, Ximenes R, Quam M, Wilder-Smith A, Massad E.
    Presents a preliminary estimation of the risk of acquiring Zika virus infection and sets out to calculate the risk of foreign tourists being bitten by an Aedes aegyptii mosquito, the predominant species in Rio, during the carnival week (7–13 February) and the Olympic Games (5–20 August) 2016 in Rio de Janeiro.
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  31. Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly
    By Byass P, Wilder-Smith A.
    Data that has been reported before the recent reports of increased microcephaly rates helps in providing more information about microcephaly and thus informing necessary strategies.
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  32. Guillain-Barre syndrome
    By Willison HJ, Jacobs BC and van Doorn PA.
    This is a review on Guillain-Barre Syndrome that includes GBS related to Zika.
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  33. Guillain-Barre Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study
    By Cao-Lormeau VM, Blake A, Mons S, Lastere S, Roche C, Vanhomwegen J, Dub T, Baudouin L, Teissier A, Larre P, Vial AL, Decam C, Choumet V, Halstead SK, Willison HJ, Musset L, Manuguerra JC, Despres P, Fournier E, Mallet HP, Musso D, Fontanet A, Neil J, Ghawche F.
    Prof Hugh Willison did the autoantibody studies in this pivotal first case control study from French Polynesia that described a possible causal relationship between Zika and Guillain Barre Syndrome.
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  34. Confirmed Zika virus infection in a Belgian traveler returning from Guatemala, and the diagnostic challenges of imported cases into Europe
    By De Smet B, Van den Bossche D, van de Werve C, Mairesse J, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Michiels J, Ariën KK, Van Esbroeck M, Cnops L.
    This article reports the first laboratory-confirmed Zika case in a Belgian traveller returning from a 3-week holiday from Guatemala and highlighted the challenge to diagnose patients in the acute phase, as serological testing is complicated by cross-reactivity, vaccination status and scarce availability of specific ZIKV tests.
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  35. Identification of Zika virus epitopes reveals immunodominant and protective roles for dengue virus cross-reactive CD8(+) T cells
    By Wen J, Tang WW, Sheets N, Ellison J, Sette A, Kim K, Shresta S.
    Here, we have identified 25 HLA-B*0702-restricted epitopes and 1 HLA-A*0101-restricted epitope using interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in ZIKV-infected IFN-α/β receptor-deficient HLA transgenic mice.
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  36. Identifying Candidate Targets of Immune Responses in Zika Virus Based on Homology to Epitopes in Other Flavivirus Species
    By Xu X, Vaughan K, Weiskopf D, Grifoni A, Diamond MS, Sette A, Peters B.
    We found a significant level of overlap between known antigenic sites from other Flavivirus proteins with residues on the ZIKV polyprotein. The E and NS1 proteins shared functional antibody epitope sites, whereas regions of T cell reactivity were conserved within NS3 and NS5 for ZIKV.
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  37. Guillain-Barré Syndrome Associated with Zika Virus Infection in Colombia
    By Parra B, Lizarazo J, Jiménez-Arango JA, Zea-Vera AF, González-Manrique G, Vargas J, Angarita JA, Zuñiga G, Lopez-Gonzalez R, Beltran CL, Rizcala KH, Morales MT, Pacheco O, Ospina ML, Kumar A, Cornblath DR, Muñoz LS, Osorio L, Barreras P, Pardo CA.
    This study demonstrates the association of zika infection as confirmed by molecular laboratory testing with cases of GBS during the outbreak of zika infection in Colombia. A detailed clinical characterization of 68 subjects affected by Zika-GBS demonstrated the para-infectious features of the neurological disorder, disclosed the value RT-PCR in urine for diagnosis and suggested the preceding exposure to dengue virus as potential risk factor for Zika-GBS.
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  38. Zika Virus-Associated Neurological Disease in the Adult: Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Encephalitis, and Myelitis
    By Muñoz LS, Barreras P, Pardo CA.
    This review outlines the knowledge about zika-associated neurological complications in the adult population with emphasis on GBS, encephalitis and myelitis.
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  39. Aedes aegypti control through modernized, integrated vector management
    By Yakob, L. ; Funk, S. ; Camacho, A. ; Brady, O. ;  Edmunds, W.J.
    The first theoretical assessment of combining novel Aedes aegypti control technologies. Excellent synergies are described whereby the Zika vector populations are effectively suppressed and replaced by virus-resistant insects.
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  40. Comparative Analysis of Dengue and Zika Outbreaks Reveals Differences by Setting and Virus
    By Funk, S. ; Kucharski, A.J. ; Camacho, A. ; Eggo, R.M. ; Yakob, L. ; Murray, L.M. ; Edmunds, W.J.
    Fitting models to data from dengue and zika outbreaks in Micronesia showed that transmission is similar for both viruses. Dengue models that have been developed for decades can and should be exploited in the current context of the Zika pandemic.
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  41. Co-distribution and co-infection of chikungunya and dengue viruses
    By Furuya-Kanamori, L. ; Liang, S. ; Milinovich, G. ; Soares Magalhaes, R.J. ; Clements, A.C. ; Hu, W. ; Brasil, P. ; Frentiu, F.D. ; Dunning, R. ; Yakob, L.
    Data-derived maps of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented as well as the distributions of chikungunya and dengue viruses. All clinical data on co-infection are also reviewed.
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  42. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported dengue fever in Australia
    By Huang, X. ; Yakob, L. ; Devine, G. ; Frentiu, F.D. ; Fu, S.Y. ; Hu, W.
    The geographical distribution of imported dengue cases has significantly expanded in mainland Australia over the past decade. In recent years, the geographical distribution of source countries of the arbovirus has expanded from the Pacific region and Asia to include Africa and the Americas.
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  43. The Driving Force for 2014 Dengue Outbreak in Guangdong, China
    By Li, M.T. ; Sun, G.Q. ; Yakob, L. ; Zhu, H.P. ; Jin, Z. ; Zhang, W.Y.
    A seasonally driven, dynamic epidemiological model was used to simulate dengue transmission data recorded from the unprecedented outbreak in Guangdong. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that delayed mosquito control, the continuous importations between the end of April to the early of July, the transmission of asymptomatic dengue infections, and the abnormally high precipitation from May to August might be the causal factors for the epidemic.
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  44. How do biting disease vectors behaviourally respond to host availability?
    By Yakob, L.
    A novel formula that accounts for vectors’ diverse feeding behaviour is presented and nested into a vector-borne disease transmission model. This coupled structure offers a flexible framework that can be applied to any vector-borne disease to assess the epidemiological importance of the availability of multiple blood host species.
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  45. Low risk of a sexually-transmitted Zika virus outbreak
    By Yakob, L. ; Kucharski, A. ; Hue, S. ; Edmunds, W.J.
    The first assessment of the threat posed by Zika virus in the absence of vectors i.e. when its spread relies primarily on sexual transmission. Recommendations are made for the appropriate timescale of testing semen for viable virus.
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  46. Zika virus outbreak in the Americas: the need for novel mosquito control methods
    By Yakob, L., Walker, T.
    Cited over 50 times in its first 12 months, this has become the key citation for the ongoing discussion of employing modern methods (e.g. Wolbachia, the Release of Insects carrying Dominant Lethal genes) for mitigating the further spread of Zika virus.
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  47. Alternative vector control methods to manage the Zika virus outbreak: more haste, less speed - Authors' reply
    By Yakob, L. ; Walker, T.
    Presents the current epidemiological situation of the Zika virus outbreak in the Americas arguing that in the absence of a vaccine, the ongoing use of insecticides or the destruction of mosquito breeding sites provides little hope for the containment of this disease.
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  48. What we need to know about Zika virus
    By Paixão ES, Rodrigues LC.
    Presents a historical context and current evaluation of Zika, outlining the strong evidence of congenital Zika infections causing the epidemic of microcephaly detected in Brazil.
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  49. History, Epidemiology, and Clinical Manifestations of Zika: A Systematic Review
    By Paixão ES, Barreto F, da Glória Teixeira M, da Conceição N Costa M, Rodrigues LC.
    Demonstrates salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and examines the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. Challenges are highlighted due to there being no vaccines, no treatments, and no good serological testing.
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  50. The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios
    By Teixeira MG, da Conceição N Costa M, de Oliveira WK, Nunes ML, Rodrigues LC.
    The epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future are addressed in an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.
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  51. Zika: The Tragedy and the Opportunities
    By Rodrigues LC.
    An introduction to a series of articles which summarise the sparse published evidence on Zika, describe the course of the epidemic, and examine the reaction from the public health sector at the same time as analysing the history of victories and defeats in the battles and wars against Aedes.
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  52. Microcephaly and Zika virus infection
    By Rodrigues LC.
    Addresses the current epidemic of microcephaly associated with the Zika virus outbreak across the Americas and investigates when the risk of infection and the magnitude of the risk are greatest during pregnancy.
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  53. Microcephaly in Pernambuco State, Brazil: epidemiological characteristics and evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of cutoff points for reporting suspected cases
    By Albuquerque MFPM, Aldighieri S, Almiron M, Araújo TVB, Barkokebas A, Batista JDL, et al (includes Rodrigues LC)
    Looks at the increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly in Pernambuco State, and Northeast Brazil which characterised an epidemic that led the Brazilian Ministry of Health to declare a national public health emergency. The article concludes that there is a need to conduct critical and on-going analyses to evaluate cutoff points, including other characteristics for microcephaly case definition.
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  54. Pyriproxyfen And The Microcephaly Epidemic In Brazil – An Ecological Approach To Explore The Hypothesis Of Association
    By de AlbuquerqueMFPM, de Souza WV,G Mendes ACG, Lyra TN,  Ximenes RAA. AraújoTVB,  Braga C, Miranda-Filho DB, Martelli CMT , C. Rodrigues LC.
    Presents the results of a geographical analysis of the association between the prevalence of microcephaly confirmed by Fenton growth charts and the type of larvicide used in the municipalities that were home to the mothers of the affected newborns in the metropolitan region of Recife in Pernambuco, the state in Brazil where the epidemic was first detected.
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  55. Zika outbreak, mega-events, and urban reform
    By de Sá TH, Reis-Santos B, Rodrigues LC.
    Argues for a rights-based approach to mosquito control, which would be aimed at large-scale urban transformation. Such an approach encompasses the right to the city, the right to health, and the right to freedom of movement.
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  56. Hearing Loss in Infants with Microcephaly and Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection - Brazil, November 2015-May 2016. MMWR 365
    By Mariana C. Leal, PhD1,2; Lilian F. Muniz, PhD2; Tamires S.A. Ferreira, MD1; Cristiane M. Santos, MD1; Luciana C. Almeida2;  Vanessa Van Der Linden, MD3,4; Regina C.F. Ramos, MD5; Laura C Rodrigues, PhD6; Caldas Neto S.S., PhD2 MMWR 65
    Looks at hearing loss in infants with congenital Zika virus infection. A retrospective assessment of a series of 70 infants aged 0–10 months with microcephaly and laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection was conducted by the Hospital Agamenon Magalhães in Brazil and partners.
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  57. Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study
    By de Araújo TV, Rodrigues LC, de Alencar Ximenes RA, de Barros Miranda-Filho D, Montarroyos UR, de Melo AP, Valongueiro S, de Albuquerque MF, Souza WV, Braga C, Filho SP, Cordeiro MT, Vazquez E, Di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz D, Henriques CM, Bezerra LC, da Silva Castanha PM, Dhalia R, Marques-Júnior ET, Martelli CM; investigators from the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group; Brazilian Ministry of Health; Pan American Health Organization; Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira; State Health Department of Pernambuco.
    Presents preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy.
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  58. Congenital Zika Virus Infection: Beyond Neonatal Microcephaly
    By Melo AS, Aguiar RS, Amorim MM, Arruda MB, Melo FO, Ribeiro ST, Batista AG, Ferreira T, Dos Santos MP, Sampaio VV, Moura SR, Rabello LP, Gonzaga CE, Malinger G, Ximenes R, de Oliveira-Szejnfeld PS, Tovar-Moll F, Chimelli L, Silveira PP, Delvechio R, Higa L, Campanati L, Nogueira RM, Filippis AM, Szejnfeld J, Voloch CM, Ferreira OC Jr, Brindeiro RM, Tanuri A.
    Presents the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil. Combined findings from clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathological examinations provided a more complete picture of the severe damage and developmental abnormalities caused by ZIKV infection than has been previously reported.
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  59. Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Zika Virus: What the Radiologist Can Expect to See Prenatally and Postnatally
    By Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld P, Levine D, Melo AS, Amorim MM, Batista AG, Chimelli L, Tanuri A, Aguiar RS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Robertson R, Szejnfeld J, Tovar-Moll F.
    Documents the imaging findings from radiology associated with congenital Zika virus infection as found in the Instituto de Pesquisa in Campina Grande State Paraiba (IPESQ) in northeastern Brazil, where the congenital infection has been particularly severe.
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  60. Initial Description of the Presumed Congenital Zika Syndrome
    By Miranda-Filho Dde B, Martelli CM, Ximenes RA, Araújo TV, Rocha MA, Ramos RC, Dhalia R, França RF, Marques Júnior ET, Rodrigues LC.
    Provides a description of the congenital syndrome presumably associated with infection by Zika virus compared with other syndromes including congenital infections of established etiologies.
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  61. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg?
    By Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM.
    Presents an examination of two pregnant women from the state of Paraiba who were diagnosed with fetal microcephaly and were considered part of the ‘microcephaly cluster’ as both women suffered from symptoms related to Zika virus infection. The sequencing analysis identified in both cases a genotype of Asian origin.
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  62. Computed Tomographic Findings in Microcephaly Associated with Zika Virus
    By Hazin AN, Poretti A, Turchi Martelli CM, Huisman TA; Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group., Di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz D, Tenorio M, van der Linden A, Pena LJ, Brito C, Gil LH, de Barros Miranda-Filho D, Marques ET, Alves JG.
    A report of findings obtained by means of head computed tomography (CT) in 23 infants (13 female) with congenital microcephaly in which the clinical and epidemiologic data are compatible with congenital ZIKV infection in the Pernambuco state of Brazil between September and December 2015.
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  63. Global risk model for vector-borne transmission of Zika virus reveals the role of El Nino 2015
    By Caminade C, Turner J, Metelmann S, Hesson JC, Blagrove MS, Solomon T, Morse AP, Baylis M.
    The study helps to quantify the impact of climate variability on Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission by two mosquito vectors with distinct characteristics: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Modelling results in the study indicate that the temperature conditions related to the 2015 El Nino climate phenomenon were exceptionally conducive for mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV over South America.
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  64. Zika virus and Guillain-Barre syndrome
    By Ellul MA, Soares CN, Solomon T.
    Clinical opinions on a case-control study done in French Polynesia on the link between GBS and Zika virus.
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  65. Fatal encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection in an adult
    By Soares CN, Brasil P, Carrera RM, Sequeira P, de Filippis AB, Borges VA, Theophilo F, Ellul MA, Solomon T.
    The article describes the first fatal case of encephalitis in a 47 years old non-pregnant woman and this indicates that ZIKV should be considered as an aetiological agent in cases of encephalitis and there is a need for clinicians to be aware of its potential severity.
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  66. Human T cell responses to Japanese encephalitis virus in health and disease
    By Turtle L, Bali T, Buxton G, Chib S, Chan S, Soni M, Hussain M, Isenman H, Fadnis P, Venkataswamy MM, Satishkumar V, Lewthwaite P, Kurioka A, Krishna S, Shankar MV, Ahmed R, Begum A, Ravi V, Desai A, Yoksan S, Fernandez S, Willberg CB, Kloverpris HN, Conlon C, Klenerman P, Satchidanandam V, Solomon T.
    The very first full-breadth analysis of the human memory T cell response using a synthetic peptide library. Data from the article revealed divergent functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses linked to different clinical outcomes of JEV infection, associated with distinct targeting and broad flavivirus cross-reactivity including epitopes from DENV, West Nile, and Zika virus.
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  67. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Zika virus infection
    By Brasil P, Sequeira PC, Freitas AD, Zogbi HE, Calvet GA, de Souza RV, Siqueira AM, de Mendonca MC, Nogueira RM, de Filippis AM, Solomon T.
    A case report of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Zika virus infection, which highlights the potential for neurotropism of Zika virus and the need to consider this emerging virus as a mosquito-borne cause of fever, rash and neurological disease.
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  68. Zika virus and neurological disease - approaches to the unknown
    By Solomon T, Baylis M, Brown D.
    A commentary on Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurological diseases. They also commented that there is an urgent priority to understand the scale and full range of neurological disease associated with Zika virus infection.
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  69. Discovery of flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements in Anopheles mosquito genomes supports the existence of Anopheles-associated insect-specific flaviviruses
    By Lequime S and Lambrechts L.
    There are in silico and in vivo evidence of transcriptionally active, flavivirus-derived endogenous vial elements in the egnome of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis. Phylogenetic analyses of the two newly described endogenous viral elements (EVEs) support the existence of a distinct clade of Anopheles-associated insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs).
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  70. Non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus: A systematic review
    By Grischott F, Puhan M, Hatz C and Schlagenhauf P.
    This paper reviewed and showed that non-vector-borne ZIKV transmission plays a role in the spread of ZIKV and has great societal impact. It has important public health implications for the prevention and control of ZIKV globally and this paper serves as a basis for policy and further research.
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  71. Letter to the editor: Specificity of Zika virus ELISA: interference with malaria
    By Van Esbroeck M, Meersman K, Michiels J, Ariën KK, Van den Bossche D.
    Specificity of Zika virus (ZIKV) ELISA kit was evaluated and the authors agreed on its high specificity. However, there is possible interference with malaria and users should be made aware of it.
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